Category Archives: Heart, Blood and Circulation

Diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, with Animation

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Diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, is an ACUTE and potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. DKA is commonly associated with type 1 but type 2 diabetics are also susceptible. DKA is caused by a critically LOW INSULIN level and is usually triggered when diabetic patients undergo further STRESS, such as infections, INadequate insulin administration, or cardiovascular diseases. It may also occur as the FIRST presentation of diabetes in people who did NOT know they had diabetes and therefore did NOT have insulin treatment.
Glucose is the MAJOR energy source of the body. It comes from digestion of carbohydrates and is carried by the bloodstream to various organs. Insulin is a hormone produced by beta-cells of the pancreas and is responsible for DRIVING glucose INTO cells. When insulin is DEFICIENT, glucose can NOT enter the cells; it stays in the blood, causing HIGH blood sugar levels while the cells are STARVED. In response to this metabolic starvation, the body increases the levels of COUNTER-regulatory hormones. These hormones have 2 major effects that are responsible for clinical presentation of DKA:
– First, they produce MORE glucose in an attempt to supply energy to the cells. This is done by breaking down glycogen into glucose, and synthesizing glucose from NON-carbohydrate substrates such as proteins and lipids. However, as the cells CANNOT use glucose, this response ONLY results in MORE sugar in the blood. As blood sugar level EXCEEDS the ability of the kidneys to REabsorb, it overflows into urine, taking water and electrolytes along with it in a process known as OSMOTIC DIURESIS. This results in large volumes of urine, dehydration and excessive thirst.
– Second, they activate lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism for ALTERNATIVE fuel. In the liver, metabolism of fatty acids as an alternative energy source produces KETONE bodies. One of these is acetone, a volatile substance that gives DKA patient’s breath a characteristic SWEET smell. Ketone bodies, unlike fatty acids, can cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore can serve as fuel for the brain during glucose starvation. They are, however, ACIDIC, and when produced in LARGE amounts, overwhelm the buffering capacity of blood plasma, resulting in metabolic ACIDOSIS. As the body tries to reduce blood acidity by EXHALING MORE carbon dioxide, a deep and labored breathing, known as Kussmaul breathing may result. Another compensation mechanism for high acidity MOVES hydrogen ions INTO cells in exchange for potassium. This leads to increased potassium levels in the blood; but as potassium is constantly excreted in urine during osmotic diuresis, the overall potassium level in the body is eventually depleted. A blood test MAY indicate too much potassium, or hyperkalemia, but once INSULIN treatment starts, potassium moves BACK into cells and hypokalemia may result instead. For this reason, blood potassium level is monitored throughout treatment and potassium replacement is usually required together with intravenous fluid and insulin as primary treatment for DKA.

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Heart, Blood and Circulation Gallery

Download illustrations of human circulatory system: gross anatomy, cardiac cycle, heart diseases and congenital defects, cardiovascular conditions and surgery treatment, blood cell formation, vascular disorders, and more.

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Blood flow in vessel, medical drawing.
Blood flow in vessel, medical drawing.
Red blood cells streaming in artery
Elements of blood, medical drawing.
Elements of blood, medical drawing.
Illustration of red and white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil.
Atherosclerosis, unlabeled.
Atherosclerosis, unlabeled.
Blood clot forms on cholesterol plaque in artery blocking blood flow.
Atherosclerosis, labeled.
Atherosclerosis, labeled.
Blood clot forms on cholesterol plaque, blocked artery.
Process of cholesterol plaque in artery, unlabeled
Process of cholesterol plaque in artery, unlabeled
Diagram showing process of cholesterol plaque in artery, unlabeled version.
Stages of Atherosclerosis
Stages of Atherosclerosis
Process of cholesterol plaque build-up in artery, labeled diagram.
Leukemia versus normal blood count, illustration.
Leukemia versus normal blood count, illustration.
Cancer of blood, Anemia, medical drawing.
Brain stroke diagrams
Brain stroke diagrams
Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic brain stroke, unlabeled.
Blood supply to the brain diagram
Blood supply to the brain diagram
Lateral view of the brain with middle cerebral artery, unlabeled.
Stages of atherosclerosis diagram
Stages of atherosclerosis diagram
Cholesterol plaque build-up in blood vessel and formation of blood clot cause blockage of blood flow, labeled.
Clipart of healthcare icon (cardiology)
Clipart of healthcare icon (cardiology)
Magnifying glass on an ECG graph diagram
Cardiac arrhythmias ECG/ EKG set diagram.
Cardiac arrhythmias ECG/ EKG set diagram.
Normal and pathological electrocardiograms in heart diseases.
EKG and myocardium function diagram
EKG and myocardium function diagram
Phases of electrical activity of human heart, ECG cycle.
Myocardial infarction diagram (heart attack)
Myocardial infarction diagram (heart attack)
Coronary artery blocked by cholesterol plaque causing heart stroke.
Human heart blood flow
Human heart blood flow
Illustration of blood flow through the heart, labeled
Human heart blood flow
Human heart blood flow
Illustration of blood flow through the heart, unlabeled
Blood supply to the heart unlabeled diagram
Blood supply to the heart unlabeled diagram
Coronary arteries illustration, anterior view of the heart
Blood supply to the heart labeled diagram
Blood supply to the heart labeled diagram
Coronary arteries illustration, anterior view of the heart
Human heart cut, medical illustration.
Human heart cut, medical illustration.
Heart anatomy diagram, unlabeled.
Left ventricular hypertrophy labeled diagram
Left ventricular hypertrophy labeled diagram
Thickening of the myocardium of left ventricle of human heart.
Electrical pathways of the heart, unlabeled
Electrical pathways of the heart, unlabeled
The cardiac conduction system of human heart, unlabeled version.
Heart valves operation, unlabeled diagram.
Heart valves operation, unlabeled diagram.
Cycles of heart valves operation pumping blood through different chambers, aorta and veins.
Electrical pathways of the heart
Electrical pathways of the heart
The cardiac conduction system of human heart, labeled version.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm diagram
Abdominal aortic aneurysm diagram
Aneurysm in aorta of the abdomen and bleeding risk.
Deep vein thrombosis diagram
Deep vein thrombosis diagram
Abnormal blood clotting in deep leg vein and formation of thrombus.
Tetralogy of Fallot diagram
Tetralogy of Fallot diagram
Congenital heart disease: Tetralogy of Fallot, labeled
Ventricular septal heart defect diagram.
Ventricular septal heart defect diagram.
Congenital heart disease: ventricular septal defect, hole in the septum between ventricles, unlabeled.
Balloon angioplasty procedure diagram
Balloon angioplasty procedure diagram
Heart cath procedure with balloon to widen artery with plaque
Heart and lungs diagram unlabeled
Heart and lungs diagram unlabeled
Human lungs and heart anatomy, unlabeled.
Thorax anatomy unlabeled diagram.
Thorax anatomy unlabeled diagram.
Human heart cross section and lungs anatomy.
Biofeedback regulation of heart rate, medical illustration.
Biofeedback regulation of heart rate, medical illustration.
Regulation of blood pressure through baroreflex, unlabeled version.
Biofeedback regulation of heart rate, labeled.
Biofeedback regulation of heart rate, labeled.
Regulation of blood pressure through baroreflex, labeled version.
Blood supply to the head and neck, labeled drawing.
Blood supply to the head and neck, labeled drawing.
Diagram of human head anatomy with arteries including internal carotid supplying the brain, lateral (side) view, labeled.
Blood supply to the brain, coronal section.
Blood supply to the brain, coronal section.
Middle cerebral artery anatomy and distribution, labeled diagram.
Metastatic cancer, medical drawing.
Metastatic cancer, medical drawing.
Cancer cell squeezes through the endothelium of blood and lymph vessel, illustration unlabeled.
Human circulatory system diagram
Human circulatory system diagram
Anatomy of human circulation system, unlabeled.
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